Junmai (純米) is a term used in Japanese sake production to indicate that the sake is made purely from rice, water, koji mold, and yeast, without the addition of any distilled alcohol or additives. The term "Junmai" can be translated as "pure rice" or "genuine rice."
To meet the Junmai classification, the sake must adhere to strict regulations. It must be made with rice polished to at least 70% (30% removal of outer bran or more) and the rice used must be of a specific sake brewing variety. Additionally, the rice must be locally grown in Japan.
The Junmai style of sake is known for its rich, full-bodied character with a pronounced rice flavor and a slightly acidic and dry taste. It often has a higher acidity level compared to other sake types, which gives it a clean and crisp finish.
Junmai sake pairs well with a wide range of cuisines, including traditional Japanese dishes such as sushi, sashimi, tempura, and grilled meats. Its robust flavor and acidity make it versatile enough to complement both delicate and bold flavors.
Overall, Junmai sake is appreciated for its pure and authentic nature, reflecting the traditional methods of sake production that prioritize the quality of the rice and craftsmanship involved in the brewing process.


Ginjo (吟醸) is a classification of Japanese sake that represents a higher quality and more refined style of sake. The term "ginjo" refers to the specific brewing method used to produce this type of sake.
Ginjo sake is made with rice that has been polished to at least 60% (with 40% of the outer layers removed), resulting in a more delicate and fruity flavor profile. The brewing process involves fermenting the sake at lower temperatures for longer periods, allowing for a slower and more controlled fermentation. This meticulous process brings out the unique aromas and flavors of the sake, often characterized by floral, fruity, and sometimes even tropical notes.
Ginjo sake is generally considered to be light and elegant, with a smooth texture and a clean, crisp finish. It is often enjoyed chilled and pairs well with a variety of dishes, making it a popular choice among sake enthusiasts and connoisseurs.

Junmai Ginjo

Junmai Ginjo (純米吟醸) is a classification of Japanese sake that combines the characteristics of both Junmai and Ginjo styles. It represents a premium grade of sake that is crafted with meticulous attention to detail and high-quality ingredients.
As a Junmai sake, Junmai Ginjo is brewed using only rice, water, koji mold, and yeast, without any added distilled alcohol or additives. This pure approach emphasizes the natural flavors and textures of the rice.
Furthermore, the Ginjo aspect of Junmai Ginjo indicates that the rice used in production has been polished to a certain degree, resulting in a more refined and delicate sake. The polishing process removes the outer layers of the rice grain, removing impurities and enhancing the rice's starchy core.
Junmai Ginjo sake is known for its smooth, clean, and complex taste profile, often exhibiting fruity and floral notes, with a well-balanced acidity and a hint of sweetness. It is typically served chilled to fully appreciate its nuanced flavors.
Overall, Junmai Ginjo represents a harmonious blend of traditional craftsmanship, premium ingredients, and refined brewing techniques, making it a highly sought-after choice among sake enthusiasts.


Daiginjo (大吟醸) is a classification of Japanese sake that represents the highest level of quality and refinement. It is renowned for its delicate and complex flavors, making it a popular choice for those seeking a premium sake experience.
The term "daiginjo" refers to the specific brewing method and the percentage of rice polishing. To be classified as daiginjo, the rice used in the sake production must be milled down to at least 50% or less of its original size, a process known as "seimaibuai." This extensive milling removes impurities and undesirable elements from the rice, resulting in a purer and more elegant flavor profile.
Daiginjo sake is often characterized by its fragrant aroma, smooth texture, and well-balanced taste. It showcases intricate layers of flavors, ranging from fruity and floral notes to hints of herbs and spices. The fermentation process for daiginjo sake is done at lower temperatures for a longer duration, contributing to its refined and complex characteristics.
Due to the meticulous brewing techniques and the use of high-quality rice, daiginjo sake is typically more expensive than other types of sake. It is often enjoyed on special occasions or served as a luxurious indulgence.

Junmai Daiginjo

Junmai Daiginjo (純米大吟醸) is a distinguished classification of Japanese sake that combines the attributes of both Junmai and Daiginjo styles, indicating an exceptional level of craftsmanship. This sake is crafted with utmost care, utilizing only the highest quality ingredients and advanced brewing techniques.
The term "junmai" signifies that the sake is made purely from rice, water, koji mold, and yeast, without the addition of any distilled alcohol or additives. "Daiginjo" emphasizes the meticulous polishing of the rice grains to an extent where at least 50% of the outer layer is removed before brewing, resulting in an exceptionally smooth and refined sake.
Junmai Daiginjo sake embodies an exquisite balance of delicate aromas, intricate flavors, and a velvety texture. The brewing process takes time and precision, reflecting the dedication of skilled artisans. It is often regarded as a luxurious sake sought after by connoisseurs for its elegance, complexity, and a lingering finish that leaves a lasting impression.

Tokubetsu Junmai and Tokubetsu Honjozo

Tokubetsu Junmai (特別純米) and Tokubetsu Honjozo (特別本醸造) are two special classifications of Japanese sake that denote a higher quality and unique brewing methods.
Tokubetsu Junmai refers to a sake that is made using only rice, water, koji mold, and yeast, without the addition of any distilled alcohol or additives. The term "tokubetsu" means "special" or "particular," indicating that the sake has been produced with careful attention and superior ingredients. Tokubetsu Junmai is known for its rich and full-bodied flavor profile.
On the other hand, Tokubetsu Honjozo is a sake that has a small amount of distilled alcohol added during the brewing process. However, the added alcohol is limited to a maximum of 10% of the total volume of the sake. This addition of alcohol helps to enhance the aroma and flavor of the sake, resulting in a more refined and smooth taste.
Both Tokubetsu Junmai and Tokubetsu Honjozo represent sakes of exceptional quality and craftsmanship, and they offer unique and enjoyable drinking experiences.


Honjozo (本醸造) is a classification of Japanese sake that represents a specific brewing method and quality standard. This term refers to sake that is brewed with a small amount of distilled alcohol added during the brewing process.
The addition of alcohol to honjozo sake is a traditional technique that helps to enhance and refine the sake's flavors and aromas. It can also contribute to a lighter and cleaner taste profile. However, despite the addition of alcohol, honjozo sakes still maintain a minimum rice polishing ratio of 70%, ensuring a respectable level of quality.
Overall, honjozo sakes are known for their smooth and mellow characteristics. They can exhibit a wide range of flavors, from fruity and floral to earthy and savory, making them versatile and enjoyable options for sake enthusiasts.

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Namazake (生酒) is a type of Japanese sake that is unpasteurized and bottled without undergoing the usual pasteurization process. The term "nama" translates to "raw" or "fresh," indicating that the sake is served in its raw, unheated state.
Namazake is beloved by sake enthusiasts for its vibrant and lively flavors. Since it is unpasteurized, it retains a distinct freshness and a unique aroma that sets it apart from other types of sake. It may exhibit vibrant fruitiness, floral notes, or a pronounced umami character.
However, it is important to note that namazake is more delicate and perishable than pasteurized sake. It should be consumed promptly and stored refrigerated to maintain its quality and flavors. Additionally, due to its raw nature, namazake can have a crisp acidity and a slightly more pronounced alcoholic presence.
Overall, namazake offers a delightful and distinct sake-drinking experience, showcasing the expressive nature of sake in its raw form.

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Genshu, in the context of Japanese sake, refers to an undiluted or full-strength sake that is directly bottled without any additional water added after the fermentation process. Unlike most sakes, which are typically diluted with water to achieve a desired alcohol content, genshu is bottled in its purest form and therefore tends to have a higher alcohol content.
Because genshu is not diluted, it often showcases a bolder and richer flavor profile compared to diluted sakes. It can have a robust and full-bodied taste with a higher level of umami, sweetness, or acidity, depending on the specific brewing methods and rice varieties used. The higher alcohol content also contributes to a more pronounced and assertive character.
One key characteristic of genshu is its versatility. As it is stronger in flavor and alcohol, it pairs well with hearty and flavorful dishes, such as grilled meats, spicy foods, or strong cheeses. It can also be enjoyed as a sipping sake, allowing for savoring and appreciation of its complex flavors.
It's important to note that due to its higher alcohol content, genshu can be more potent than diluted sakes, and should be enjoyed responsibly. Additionally, if you prefer a milder sake, it may be advisable to choose a diluted version rather than genshu.

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Nigori, in the realm of Japanese sake, is a style of sake known for its cloudy or unfiltered appearance. Unlike most sakes, which are clear and filtered to remove impurities, nigori sake retains some of the rice sediment, giving it a milky or cloudy appearance. This is achieved by skipping or reducing the filtration process, allowing the sake to maintain a richer, more textured character.
Nigori sake is typically slightly sweeter and often has a creamier mouthfeel compared to clear sakes. It may exhibit a range of flavors, from subtle fruity notes to hints of rice and yeast. Due to its unfiltered nature, nigori sake may require gentle shaking or swirling before serving to evenly disperse the sediment and fully enjoy its unique texture and taste.
Nigori sake is a popular choice for those seeking a more rustic or traditional sake experience. It pairs well with a variety of dishes, particularly spicy or bold-flavored foods, as its slightly sweeter profile can help balance and complement stronger flavors. Whether enjoyed on its own or as part of a meal, nigori sake offers a distinct and enjoyable drinking experience, showcasing the craftsmanship and diversity found within Japanese sake culture.